Diabetes Insipidus

Glass of water

Excessive thirst, a symptom of diabetes.

Diabetes insipidus (DI) symptoms are in many ways similar to that of diabetes mellitus if it is left untreated. Excessive peeing (urination) with an excessive thirst particularly for cold water (or ice water). The urine excretion is rather diluted even with a reduction of fluid intake having no bearing on the strength and colour of the urine.

There are differing types of diabetes insipidus the most common one being neurogenic DI this particular diabetes is caused by a lack of arginine vasopressin (AVP) diabetes insipidus is also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The next most common diabetes is known as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, this diabetes is caused by an insensitivity of the kidneys to ADH. It can also be an *iatrogenic artifact of drug use.

*The terms iatrogenesis and iatrogenic artifact refer to inadvertent adverse effects or complications caused by or resulting from medical treatment or advice.

The characteristics problems of diabetes insipidus being excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, with the urine not containing glucose so there would be no hyperglycemia (elevated blood glucose), it would also be possible for some individuals to show sign of dehydration and a loss of potassium as the body is unable to store much of the water it takes in, hence the excessive peeing throughout both day and the night, to suffer from blurred vision would be extremely rare.

When it comes to young children suffering from diabetes insipidus it can interfere with their appetite, eating, growth and weight gain. They may also suffer from fever, vomiting, or diarrhea.

Blood glucose levels, bicarbonate levels, and calcium levels need to be tested to isolate diabetes insipidus from other forms of excessive urination problems.

A test called fluid deprivation is carried out to measure whether diabetes insipidus is caused by a defect in the ADH production, a defect in the kidneys or through excessive fluid in-take. Diabetes insipidus is a complaint anyone of any age can suffer from. However, it is more common in adults and affects one in every 25,000.

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